Saturday, December 3, 2016

Carlow in the register of Archbishop Milo Sweteman

Carlow in the register of Archbishop Milo Sweteman

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Introduction

The register of Milo Sweteman, Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, is held in the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland. It is the earliest in date of the seven surviving medieval archbishopric registers of Armagh which, with several gaps, cover the years from 1361 to 1543.[1] Most of the material in the register relates to the diocese of Armagh and the archdiocese of Armagh. Yet sometimes matters relating to places in the other three provinces of Ireland are recorded. Carlow is mentioned a few times.



Archbishop Milo Sweteman

The references to Carlow may not be so out of place in the register of Archbishop Milo Sweteman. The first reference to the Sweteman family appears in the thirteenth century in the person of William Sweteman, provost of Dublin. Yet the main are of residence of the family was in the Kilkenny/Waterford area. Sir Robert Sweteman was summoned to Parliament in 1375 and his son John Sweteman was sheriff of County Kilkenny in 1395. Before 1381 John de Erley conveyed the manor of Earlstown in the Barony of Shillelogher, Co. Kilkenny, to Robert Sweteman.

The earliest record of Milo Sweteman dates from 1341 when he was appointed by Richard Ledred, Bishop of Ossory, as one of his two attorneys in Ireland.[2] When Bishop Ledred died in 1360 Milo Sweteman was then treasurer of the Diocese of Ossory and was shortly after elected Bishop of Ossory by the cathedral chapter. On travelling to Rome to receive the seal of confirmation, Pope Innocent VI quashed the election and made Milo Archbishop of Armagh to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Richard FitzRalph in November 1360. Milo Sweteman was consecrated Archbishop in November 1361.[3]

The Carlow letters

Most of the Carlow references in the register of Archbishop Sweteman relate to royal letters ordering the appearance by the Archbishop, or others, at Carlow before the justices sitting there or to the exchequer which was based in Carlow from 1361 to 1394. For more on the exchequer at Carlow see article at = http://celtic2realms-medievalnews.blogspot.ie/2015/04/the-medieval-exchequer-at-carlow.html

The royal letters were usually direct to the sheriff of Louth as the Archbishop of Armagh usually resided in Louth in the medieval period as Armagh lay in the Irish sphere of influence. 

The Carlow references in 1367

On 26th February 1367 Thomas de la Dale testified at Drogheda to a letter sent by King Edward III to the then sheriff of County Louth. The letter commanded the sheriff to instruct Archbishop Sweteman to deliver without delay to John, son of Peter de Haddesore the manor of Inishkeen, Co. Monaghan, which Jordan Darditz had given to Richard de Haddesore and his wife Margery and their heirs.

A pre February 1367 document, possibly the will of Richard de Haddesore, directed that on the death of Richard and Margery, and their son John, and his sons John, Richard and Peter the manor ought to descend to John son of Peter Haddesore. It had fallen to the Archbishop of Armagh, possibly as the executor, to implement this transfer of the manor. The sheriff was told that if Archbishop Sweteman did not obey, and if John de Haddesore wished to pursue the matter in court, then the sheriff was to summon the Archbishop to appear before the justices at Carlow within fifteen days of Easter. A note appended to the letter said that John de Haddesore gave 10s in security to pursue the matter in court.[4]

Shortly after this royal letter, Archbishop Sweteman was summoned to appear at a parliament at Kilkenny on the 14th June.[5] The Archbishop or his proctor may have used the occasion of this parliament to talk with government officials to delay the Haddesore court case. It seems that such a delay was achieved, even if only to defer the case for a few months. On 14th October 1367, at Carlow, Gerald Fitz Maurice, Earl of Desmond and justiciar of Ireland testified to another royal letter sent by Edward III to the sheriff of Louth changing the date of appearance of the Archbishop at Carlow to 3rd November 1367.[6]

Later Inishkeen

It would seem that John de Haddesore was unsuccessful in acquiring the manor of Inishkeen in 1368 or he didn’t hold it for long. Instead the manor reverted to the Archbishop of Armagh. In October 1371 Maurice McMaghon wanted justice from ill-treatment by the Archbishop’s tenants at Inishkeen. Later on 28th September 1375 Archbishop Sweteman granted Inishkeen to Roger Gernon, lord of Gernonstown on a lease of five years from 1st November 1375 at a rent of 40s and 500 eels per year.[7] Yet this was not the end of the Hadsor relationship with County Monaghan. On 12th May 1425 Sir John Hadsor witnessed the indenture between James Butler, Earl of Ormond and King’s Lieutenant of Ireland and Bernard McMaghon in which the latter swore loyalty to the English king.[8]

The Carlow references in 1368

On 12th February 1368 John de Troy testified to a letter sent by King Edward III to the sheriff of Louth (then known as Uriel), commanding him to appear at the Irish exchequer at Carlow on 17th April with money gathered from the county of the cross of Ulster. A scribe in the household of Archbishop Sweteman wrote that this letter was obtained by the malice of John de Troy without the knowledge of the king.[9]

In 1368 John de Troy was treasurer of Ireland and held that position since September 1364. He got the job due to the outbreak of opposition to English born officials but John de Troy was not the best of treasurers even if the exchequer became more efficient under his administration.[10] His accounts up to July 1368 were still not completed audited as late as 1407 when his executors were summoned to account. Previous to the treasurership John de Troy was second baron of the exchequer from 1347 to 1364.[11]

The money required at Carlow was 100s from the Diocese of Down for many defaults. The Diocese was then vacant and Archbishop Sweteman was guardian of the spiritualties, assisted by John Langestoun, clerk. An additional 100s was from the same Diocese for unjust impediments.[12]

In June 1368 King Edward III sent a letter to the sheriff of Louth to command Archbishop Sweteman and John Kenan, his clerk, to permit the prior of St. Mary of Louth to present a fit person to the vicarage of St. Feghin of Tarminfeckin. The Archbishop had previously prevented the prior of St. Mary from filling the vacancy. If the Archbishop did not obey the command of the sheriff, then Archbishop Sweteman and John Kenan were to appear before the justices at Carlow within fifteen days of 24th June 1368. This royal letter was testified by Maurice Fitzgerald, Earl of Desmond and justiciar of Ireland, at Drogheda on 20th June 1368.[13]

Yet it seems that Archbishop Sweteman got a delay on the summons to appear at Carlow within fifteen days of 24th June 1368 as in July 1368 another royal letter was sent to the sheriff of Louth. In this new letter, testified by Robert de Preston at Carlow, the Archbishop was to appear at Carlow within three weeks of 29th September 1368 to answer the plea of the prior of St. Mary.[14]

Carlow castle - one time home of the royal government 

The Carlow references in 1371

On 6th July 1371 Robert de Preston testified at Carlow to a letter sent by King Edward III to Archbishop Sweteman instructing the Archbishop to cause the dean and chapter of Armagh to appear before the justiciar at Carlow within fifteen days of Michaelmas, to answer the Abbot of Mellifont, who claimed that he was owed £80 by the chapter.[15] This summons possibly had its origins in 1369 when the prelates at a great council at Dublin on 22nd April 1369 granted a subsidy to William de Windsor, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, at a rate of one mark per every carucate of arable land belonging to the bishops. The bishops could recoup this tax from their free tenants, gavellers and betaghs. The bishops also agreed to a tax of two tenths of the value of each benefice having first obtained the consent of the clergy.

The Archbishop of Armagh appointed collectors in his diocese and convened a convocation of the clergy among the English to get consent to the tax. The English clergy included the area of Louth and the diocese of Meath. The Irish clergy lived in the rest of Ulster covered by the Archdiocese and were usually kept separate from the English clergy. The English clergy had consented to the two tenths tax but the Abbot of Mellifont along with the Abbot of St. Mary’s, Dublin and the prior of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in Ireland failed to attend the convocation.[16]

The abbey of Mellifont was in a state of flux in the years from 1321 to 1380 over the admission of English and Irish clergy. In 1321 King Edward II wrote to Citeaux abbey that Mellifont only admitted clergy that were not of the English race which was contrary to laws of separation between the races passed in numerous parliaments and great councils. The abbot of Citeaux replied that the Cistercian order had passed a decree against racial discrimination. Yet by 1380 a law was passed that no Irishman should be admitted to Mellifont.[17] In February 1370 King Edward III wrote to Archbishop Sweteman compelling him to summon the abbots of Mellifont, St. Mary’s and Newry along with the prior of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem to pay the tax.[18]

It is not known if the Armagh chapter paid Mellifont the £80 it demanded by Mellifont or even if they attended the justiciar’s court at Carlow. 1371 was not the last time an Archbishop of Armagh had business in Carlow. In about 1410 Archbishop Nicholas Fleming was in a legal action against Sir Thomas Fleming, baron of Slane, Christopher Holywood and others concerning the church of Rathdromnew. Archbishop Fleming wrote to John Fitz Adam and his fellow justices of the common bench, meeting at Carlow, to include the name of John Herdman as attorney for the Archbishop in the case.[19]

Conclusion 

After 1400 the exchequer and justice wing of the common bench returned to Dublin as the Irish of Leinster made Carlow unsafe and insecure. The Archbishop of Armagh also returned within his archdiocese and left the rest of the country to work away itself. Indeed if Archbishop Nicholas Fleming didn’t leave a register of his time at Armagh we would know very little about him from other sources.[20]

Yet for the brief time in the fourteenth century royal government in Carlow brought the Archbishop of Armagh out of his isolation to engaged with the rest of Ireland in the heart of the Carlow countryside. 
  
Armagh cathedral 

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[1] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 1996), p. xvi
[2] Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward III, 1340-1343, p. 278
[3] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, p. xiv
[4] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 28
[5] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 29
[6] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 32
[7] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, nos. 156, 212
[8] Paul Dryburgh & Brendan Smith (eds.), Handbook and Select Calendar of Sources for Medieval Ireland in the National Archives of the United Kingdom (Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2005), p. 221
[9] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 33
[10] Philomena Connolly, ‘The Financing of English Expeditions to Ireland, 1361-1376’, in James Lydon edited England and Ireland in the Later Middle Ages (Irish Academic Press, Blackrock, 1981), p. 106
[11] Philomena Connolly (ed.), Irish Exchequer Payments 1270-1446 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 1998), pp. 422, 509, 518, 525
[12] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 33
[13] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 36
[14] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 37
[15] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 22
[16] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 64
[17] A. Gwynn & R.N. Hadcock, Medieval Religious Houses Ireland (Irish Academic Press, Blackrock, 1988), p. 140
[18] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Milo Sweteman Archbishop of Armagh 1361-1380, no. 43
[19] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Nicholas Fleming Archbishop of Armagh 1404-1416 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 2003), no. 136
[20] Brendan Smith (ed.), The register of Nicholas Fleming Archbishop of Armagh 1404-1416, p. xi

Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Affane (Athmethan) civil parish in medieval times

Affane (Athmethan) civil parish in medieval times

Niall C.E.J. O’Brien

Introduction

The Normans divided present-day County Waterford into eight cantreds one of which was Athmethan, now written as Affane. The cantred is likely to correspond to the later Barony of Athmethan which in 1320 included five civil parishes.[1] This article explores one of those civil parishes, namely; Affane.

Grant of Affane to Thomas Fitz Anthony

On 3rd July 1215 Thomas Fitz Anthony, seneschal of Leinster, secured a hereditary grant of all the royal lands in the Counties of Waterford (except the city of Waterford) and Desmond (Cork) along with the custody of Waterford castle, Dungarvan castle and the castle and city of Cork and custody of the escheat lands in those places. The grant to Fitz Anthony was a reward for his support given to King John who was fighting rebel barons in England at the time. Fitz Anthony’s feudal lord, William Marshal was one of the chief commanders of the royalist army.

For this substantial grant Thomas Fitz Anthony was to pay a yearly rent to the crown of 250 marks (he paid an upfront fine of 100 marks in July 1215). In addition, Fitz Anthony was given the office of hereditary sheriff of both counties, the only such creation in Ireland. To increase his income Fitz Anthony also got half the prisage on wine in Waterford city where he was the constable. Thomas Fitz Anthony needed this and other revenues because the cost of defending and maintaining the castles across the two counties fell to him to pay for.[2]
The cantred of Affane (Athmethan)

The grant of County Waterford included the cantred of Affane. In 1320 the cantred of Affane, also referred to as the Barony of Affane (Athmethan) included not just the civil parish of Affane but also included the civil parishes of Aglish (Gallys), Clashmore (Glasmore), Kilmolash and Whitechurch (Keppagh, alias Cappagh).[3] The caput of the cantred was at Affane but where? Was it near the parish church which was beside the present Church of Ireland building or on the site of the later Affane house or Mount Rivers? The caput could have been an earlier construction of Dromana castle? The records are just not available to say – only an archaeological dig in a few places in the parish could attempt to form an answer. 

The Barony of Affane was retained as an administrative area for local and national government purposes into the sixteenth century. In 1570 or maybe even then, the medieval cantreds/baronies of Affane, Owath, Slefgo, Dungarvan and Omynws were swept away to form the large Barony of Decies.[4] In the eighteenth century the Barony of Decies was divided into the Barony of Decies and the Barony of Decies within Drum. The civil parish of Affane is today located in the Barony of Decies.


Cantred/barony of Athmethan (Affane)  
source Waterford History and Society figure 6.1

Thomas Fitz Anthony removed from the Decies

Thomas Fitz Anthony was a person of the age of King John. Although he continued in office after the coronation of King Henry III he was of a different age. The minority of Henry III and the King’s changeable opinion of people made it difficult to last the distance. In 1223 relations between Thomas Fitz Anthony and the regency council of King Henry III entered a difficult period. In June 1223 Thomas Fitz Anthony was ordered to appear at court to show by what charters he held the escheat lands in Counties Waterford and Desmond and within the city of Cork. It was suggested that Fitz Anthony was withholding money due to the crown. Fitz Anthony failed to show up and on 3rd June 1223 he was stripped of his lands in Ireland. These were given to John Marshal (died 1235), the marshal of Ireland.[5] At a later date the Counties of Decies and Desmond were given to Richard de Burgh.[6] Thomas Fitz Anthony died in 1229 leaving five daughters as his co-heirs.[7]

The Devereux family at Affane

Long before Thomas Fitz Anthony lost the lands of Decies and Desmond he knew that his reign would not last. In an effort to secure some land for his family from the royal grant Thomas Fitz Anthony arranged for portions granted away from his own name and become estates held directly from the king. Before 1223 Thomas Fitz Anthony gave the cantred of Affane to John Devereux. When Thomas Fitz Anthony died in 1229 the crown recognised John Devereux as lord of Affane and granted him a charter for the lands to be held of the king at a rent of 31 marks per year.[8]

Although no proof is yet forthcoming it would appear that John Devereux married a sister and co-heiress of Emma, wife of William de Dene and daughter of Helen Fitz Anthony, daughter of Thomas Fitz Anthony. John Devereux was alive in 1234 and was possibly dead by 1236 when the rent from his estate was granted to Richard FitzEly but other evidence such as the founding of a house of Friar Minor in New Ross in 1256 suggests that John Devereux lived longer.[9]

John Devereux was succeeded by his son Stephen Devereux. In 1261 a major family disputed occurred between the heirs of Thomas Fitz Anthony over the land of Offergus which is the triangular area bounded on the north by the River Bride, on the east by the River Blackwater and on the west by the present boundary between Counties Cork and Waterford. John FitzThomas and Margaret his wife, John de Norrach, Stephen Archdeacon and Desiderata his wife sued William de Dene and Emma his wife and Stephen Devereux. All the other characters in the court case were daughters or sons-in-law or descendants of Thomas Fitz Anthony which strengthens the opinion that John Devereux was related to Fitz Anthony. It appears that William de Dene and Stephen Devereux won the court case as their descendants continued to hold Offergus into the fourteenth century.

Stephen Devereux did not long enjoy his inheritance of Affane and Offergus as he died shortly after 1262. He was succeeded by his daughter, Ismania who before 1272 had married Jordan de Exeter II of Athlethan, otherwise called Ballylahan, in County Mayo. Jordan de Exeter was sheriff of Connacht in 1269-70 and again in 1279 and served two terms as constable of Roscommon castle in 1280 and 1285. On his marriage to Ismania Devereux, Jordan de Exeter became lord of Affane, half of Offergus (the other half held by the heirs of William de Dene) and two fees at Acheteyr in Co. Kilkenny.   

The rent for Affane by the county sheriff

On 28th April 1287 Maurice Russell, sheriff of County Waterford, paid £10 6s 8d to the Dublin exchequer for the rent for Affane and in May 1289 he paid the same amount.[10]  

The de Exeter family at Affane

In October 1291 Jordan de Exeter paid the rent of £8 for Affane and in May 1292 he paid two payments of £10 6s 8d and 46s 8d.[11] In 1292 King Edward I granted the land of Decies to Thomas FitzMaurice and Margaret his wife as descendants of John FitzThomas, son-in-law of Thomas Fitz Anthony. The royal grant excluded four named people who held land in Decies directly of the king and Jordan de Exeter was one of the four.[12]

On 22nd April 1293 Jordan de Exeter paid £10 6s 8d to the Dublin exchequer for the rent. At Easter 1295 he paid 100s. Later in November 1295 Jordan de Exeter had fallen foul of the authorities so that along with paying £6 6s 8d for the rent of Affane he paid 5½ marks and 93s 4d for failing to keep the peace.[13]

In April 1296 Jordan de Exeter paid the usual rent of £10 6s 8d. Yet at the same time he was in trouble again with the authorities. Roger Meuryk had pledged to have Jordan de Exeter to appear before the authorities on some unknown matter, but failed to have Jordan there on the day and so Roger paid a fine of 20s for this failure. In November 1296 Jordan de Exeter paid an additional £7 3s 4d for the rent of Affane.[14]

On 4th May 1297 Jordan de Exeter paid 15½ marks for Affane and in October 1298 he paid the usual rent of £10 6s 8d as he did in 1299.[15] On the death of Thomas Fitzmaurice, lord of the Decies in 1299 it was found that Jordan de Exeter held Affane of the King in chief for which he paid £20 13s 4d per year or 31 marks.[16]
People of Affane

In October 1285 Richard le Blunt of Athmethan paid forty pence to the Dublin exchequer as a fine for not performing his office.[17] On 12th October 1298 Geoffrey Brun of Athmethan paid a half mark for the chattels of John and Brydyn McCollan, felons of that district, to the Dublin exchequer.[18] In the period 1302 to 1307 Richard Bykhampton was commissioner of the peace for the district of Affane.[19] In July 1375 John Brown and David Waleferk were collectors in the cantred of Affane of the lay subsidy granted to William de Windsor, viceroy of Ireland, at the Kilkenny Parliament.[20]

The value of Affane

We saw earlier how the rent for Affane was worth £10 6s 8d per year to the Dublin exchequer. Other measures to see the value of Affane in medieval times include to contribution of 100s from Affane to the 1300 Scottish war campaign of King Edward I.[21]

Parish of Affane

About the same time of 1302 the parish of Affane was valued at £6 16s 4d on which it paid the papal tax of 13s 7½d. Affane ranked fifteenth in value in the Diocese of Lismore out of eighty-eight different benefices including parishes and abbeys.[22] Affane parish was subject to the rectory of Dungarvan.

In about 1742 Bishop Este of Waterford and Lismore told Charles Smith, the historian, that the rectory of Affane was with the impropriator and the full value of the vicarage tithes of the parish was £25 from which £6 was paid in tax to the King’s Bench. There was no glebe land and the Earl of Cork was the then patron. The church was in repair and in constant service.[23]

In the early twentieth century Canon Patrick Power recorded that there was little remaining of the medieval church at Affane. Instead the outline of the church could be seen in the ground just south of the later nineteenth century church.[24]

The names of the vicars of Affane in medieval times are mostly unknown. The best documented was Philip O’Keith in about 1487.[25] As well as being a vicar of Affane Philip O’Keith was a canon at Lismore cathedral where between 1487 and 1503 he was named as a papal judge on a number of occasions.[26]  


Medieval church site to the right of Affane 19th century church

The de Exeter family of Affane in the fourteenth century

In October 1301 Jordan de Exeter paid the usual rent for Affane while at the same time serving as sheriff of County Waterford.[27] On 10th My 1302 Jordan de Exeter paid £10 6s 8d for the rent of Affane.[28] The surviving records get a bit patchy after 1307 but it seems the de Exeter family held Affane for many decades.

Jordan de Exeter (alive 1310) and Ismania Devereux (dead by 1305) were succeeded at Affane by their son, Jordan de Exeter III. In 1302 Jordan de Exeter III held half of Offergus by grant from his parents. Jordan de Exeter III fought in the Scottish wars and was rewarded with the wardship and marriage of the heir of Richard de St. Michael.[29]

Jordan de Exeter was dead before 1316 when his brother, Stephen de Exeter was named as holding the two fees of Acheteyr. But Stephen de Exeter was killed in 1316 at Ballylahan in Mayo leaving Matilda as his widow and an heir under age. Stephen’s brother Meiler de Exeter became guardian of Stephen’s property in Connacht until the heir came of age. In 1317 the escheator accounted for £31 8s 7 ½ d of two parts of the rent of Affane from 10th August 1316 to 14th May 1317 on the lands of Stephen de Exeter at Gallys, Annagh, Affane and elsewhere in the barony of Affane. There was also £2 18s ½d from increments. £1 6s 6d was deducted from the rent for 318 acres sown before the death of Stephen at 1½d per acre.[30]

Meiler was killed in 1317 and was succeeded by his son Meiler de Exeter who died in 1326 when his uncle, John de Exeter, succeeded as heir. Stephen’s property in Co. Waterford included Aglis, Annagh, Affane and other lands in the Barony of Affane. The manors of Cappagh and Clashmore within the Barony of Affane were held by Thomas, son of Richard de Burgh, from the heirs of Stephen de Exeter. The Waterford lands were entrusted to John, son of Robert le Poer, and he held them until 1326 when the property passed to John de Exeter, brother of Stephen de Exeter.[31] In 1322 the arrears of rent for Affane as owed by Jordan de Exeter was £93 of which £62 covered the years 1319-1322.[32] In 1326 it was reported that John, son of Robert le Poer, owed £267 3s 3¾d in arrears of rent for two thirds of Affane which belonged to Stephen de Exeter.[33] The other one third was possibly held in dower by Stephen’s widow, Matilda.

In the sheriff’s account for County Waterford covering the years 1327 to 1336 it was said that Jordan de Exeter owed £248 in arrears of his rent to the Crown for the cantred of Affane. But King Edward III quashed the debt and declared Jordan to be free of all arrears.[34]
By 1355 John de Exeter was succeeded as lord of Affane by his son, Jordan de Exeter, who in 1358 held the manor of Affane in chief from the King. Jordan de Exeter was falsely accused of been in rebellion against the King while sheriff of Connacht and his property was temporally seized by the government.[35]

Jordan de Exeter was succeeded to his lands in Connacht, Waterford and Cork by his son, Meiler de Exeter. In 1374 Meiler de Exeter recovered Affane as part of the County Waterford estates which the government had seized to recoup the debts of Meiler’s father. Meiler de Exeter also recovered lands in Kilkenny and Cork.[36] Meiler de Exeter was dead by 1380 when the sheriff of Connacht was ordered to deliver Meiler’s lands to John, son of John de Exeter. In 1382 John de Exeter recovered Affane from the government while ten days later John, son of William de Exeter, was granted custody of Offergus in medieval Co. Cork. The de Exeter family had Affane in 1400 but after that date the records get scarce.[37]

The de Exeter family continued to live in County Mayo into the late sixteenth century and had numerous members.[38] But it would seem that the Waterford property after 1380 passed from the direct line of the family to one cousin after another and eventually got lost in the darkness of the fifteenth century. When Affane and the barony of Affane re-emerges in the sixteenth century and seventeenth century, the Fitzgerald family of Dromana own most of the property in the former barony.   

Dromana and Fitzgerald property in Affane parish

In the Civil Survey of 1640 Gerrott Fitzgerald of Dromana held the townlands of Dromannymore, Ballyhanemore and Dromroe which measured one ploughland and two thirds of a ploughland or 800 acres, worth £91.[39] Gerrott Fitzgerald was a lineal descendant of Thomas Fitz Anthony and in July 2015 Gerrott’s descendants held a celebration of 800 years association with Dromana and County Waterford.

In the mid fourteenth century, James Fitzgerald, 7th Earl of Desmond, settled the Fitzgerald lands in County Waterford (known anciently as the Decies), on his younger son, Gerald Oge Fitzgerald. Gerald Oge established his chief seat at Dromana within the parish of Affane and his descendants still live in the house.[40] Although the Fitzgerald and later Villiers Stuart family of Dromana left an extensive archive of documents few survive to record the family’s activities in medieval Affane.

Other lands of the Earl of Desmond in Affane parish

Apart from the three townlands held by the Fitzgerald family of Dromana it appears that the Earl of Desmond retained property rights in Affane parish long after Decies was given to Gerald Oge Fitzgerald of Dromana. After the Second Desmond Rebellion of 1579-1583 all the lands of the Earl of Desmond were seized by the English government and parcelled out to various people called Undertakers who undertook to plant Munster with English settlers. In 1586 Sir Christopher Hatton, Lord Chancellor of England, received the manor of Knockmoan and various other lands in County Waterford including 1,422 acres of Affane which was said to be formerly belonging to the late Garret Fitzgerald, 15th Earl of Desmond.[41]

After the death of Sir Christopher Hatton his Irish property passed to a relative, Sir William Hatton who before 1596 sold it to the D’Alton family. In the 1630s Sir Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, purchased Affane from Richard Dalton along with other property at Cappoquin, Salterbridge and Kilmolash.[42] In the Civil Survey of 1640 the Earl of Cork held Affane.[43]

Cranaghtane townland in Affane parish

On 1st October 1382 Richard Fitz Nicholl, granted various properties in County Waterford to Sir Thomas de Mandeville including Cranaghtane. Richard Fitz Nicholl appears to have held these lands in trust for the Mandeville family, possibly as part of a marriage settlement. Magina, daughter and heir of Roger Fitz Nicholl, married Maurice, son of Sir Walter de Mandeville and this Sir Walter was the father of Sir Thomas de Mandeville.[44]

The de Mandeville family were connected to the Fitzgerald family, Earls of Desmond and Lords of the Decies. Sir Walter de Mandeville was married to Royse Fitz Gerald fynn Fitzgerald and they both were alive in the mid fourteenth century. In 1341 Thomas de Mandeville, son of Sir Walter de Mandeville, and Anestace his wife conveyed the manor of Kilmanahan to Maurice Fitzgerald, 1st Earl of Desmond, in return for an indenture of military service.[45] The Fitzgerald family, Earls of Desmond, were descendants and heirs of Thomas Fitz Anthony. Did Cranaghtane come to the Mandeville family by the marriage of Sir Walter to Royce Fitzgerald or as part of the 1341 indenture? As noted above the Fitzgerald family retained ownership of part of Affane parish since the grant to Thomas Fitz Anthony in 1215 and even after his transfer of lordship of Affane to the de Exeter family.

By 1378 Sir Thomas de Mandeville had remarried and his new wife was Joan Power.[46] Her marriage settlement may also have brought Cranaghtane to the Mandeville family. In July 1427 Milo Power made an enfeoffment of Norrisland, on the west bank of the River Blackwater from Affane parish to John Fitzthomas and Catherine his wife. This enfeoffment shows the Power family with property interests adjacent to Affane parish. Yet we simply don’t have the necessary document or documents to take the history of Cranaghtane back beyond 1382.

Maurice de Mandeville and Magina Fitz Nicholl had a son called Henry de Mandeville who was the father of Walter de Mandeville. On 16th August 1456 Walter, son of Henry de Mandeville, granted unto his son Edmond de Mandeville various lands in County Waterford that were the ancient property of the Mandeville family. Cranaghtane in the parish of Affane was part of this inheritance.[47] 

By the seventeenth century the Mandeville family of County Waterford had changed the spelling of their surname to that of Mansfield and their descendants are known by the latter name to this day. On 20th September 1631 Sir Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, paid £20 sterling for the land of Cranaghtane, near Cappoquin from Mrs. O’Brien. This woman was the widow of Walter Mansfield junior and had married Mr. O’Brien after Walter’s death. Previously, the land of Cranaghtane was conveyed by Walter Mansfield senior of Ballynemultinagh, onto his son Walter and his then wife.[48] Thus Cranaghatane appears among the property held by Richard Boyle in the Civil Survey of 1640.

Affane at the end of the medieval age

The medieval age is said to have ended in 1534 when King Henry VIII of England exchanged his title of Lord of Ireland to that of King of Ireland. By 1640 the medieval and Tudor ages had come and gone. Yet in the Civil Survey of 1654 which recorded the land of Ireland as it was in 1640 we get some version of Affane parish as it was in earlier times. In 1640 Sir Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork, held the townlands of Affane, Cloghdahiny and Cranaghtane which measured 2½ ploughlands and an eight part of a ploughland or 1,000 acres, worth £105 15s. Gerrott Fitzgerald of Dromana held the townlands of Dromannymore, Ballyhanemore and Dromroe which measured one ploughland and two thirds of a ploughland or 800 acres, worth £91. Pierce Roche of Curraghroche held the final townland in the parish, that of Curraghroche, measuring a quarter of a ploughland or 100 acres and worth £15.[49] The other half of Curraghroche townland was in the parish of Kilmolash where Pierce Roche held a quarter of a ploughland or 80 acres and was worth £10 2s.[50]


The land around Affane church

Conclusion

The Civil Survey of 1640 is very much Ireland’s Domesday Book. If the Anglo-Normans made a survey like the Domesday Book in 1250 it would be a wonderful resource to compare the start and end of the medieval age and help fill in many of the blanks in the medieval story of Affane. The above article has tried to fill in some of the blanks and like the story of many other places in medieval Ireland is a work in progress. Maybe someday in the future a dusty manuscript in an old cupboard could help to fill in more gaps in the story – we live in hope.

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[1] C.A. Empey, ‘County Waterford: 1200-1300’, in William Nolan & Thomas Power (eds.), Waterford History and Society (Geography Publications, Dublin, 1992), p. 142
[2] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of documents relating to Ireland (5 vols. Kraus reprint, 1974), vol. 1 (1171-1251), nos. 576, 580
[3] C.A. Empey, ‘County Waterford: 1200-1300’, in Waterford History and Society, edited by William Nolan and Thomas P. Power (Geography Publications, Dublin, 1992), p. 142
[4] Robert Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, Vol. VI with appendices (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1942), p. 25
[5] David Beresford, ‘Fitz Anthony, Thomas’, in Dictionary of Irish Biography, edited by James McGuire & James Quinn (Cambridge University Press, 2009), Vol. 3, p. 813
[6] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of documents relating to Ireland, vol. 1 (1171-1251), no. 1543
[7] Eric St. John Brooks, Knight’s fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th century (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1950), p. 148
[8] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of documents relating to Ireland, vol. 1 (1171-1251), nos. 1678, 1680
[9] Eric St. John Brooks, Knight’s fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th century (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1950), p. 220
[10] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland (5 vols. Kraus reprint, 1974), Vol. 3 (1285-1292), pp. 139, 224
[11] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 3 (1285-1292), pp. 434, 477
[12] Eric St. John Brooks, Knight’s fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th century (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1950), p. 222
[13] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1292-1301), pp. 11, 89, 114
[14] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1292-1301), pp. 132, 153
[15] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1292-1301), pp. 180, 250, 314
[16] Eric St. John Brooks, Knight’s fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th century (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1950), p. 222
[17] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 3 (1285-1292), p. 54
[18] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1292-1301), p. 249
[19] Robin Frame, ‘Commissions of the Peace in Ireland, 1302-1461’, in Analecta Hibernica, no. 35 (1992), p. 31
[20] H.G. Richardson & G.O. Sayles (eds.), Parliaments and Councils of Medieval Ireland (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1947), p. 59
[21] Mills (ed.), Calendar of the Justice Rolls of Ireland, 1295-1303 (), p. 304
[22] H.S. Sweetman & G.F. Handcock (eds.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 5 (1302-1307), no. 726
[23] Charles Smith, The Ancient and Present State of the County and City of Waterford (Dungarvan, 2008), p. 18
[24] Canon Patrick Power, History of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore (), p. 227
[25] Rev. W. Rennison, Succession List of the Bishop, Cathedral and Parochial Clergy of the Diocese of Waterford and Lismore (author, 1920), p. 137
[26] J.A. Twemlow (ed.), Calendar of entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. XIV, 1484-1492 (Stationery Office, London, 1960), pp. 142, 187, 190 ; Michael J. Haren (ed.), Calendar of entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. XV, 1484-1492 (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1978), nos. 301, 360, 669, 889;  Anne P. Fuller (ed.), Calendar of entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. XVII, Part 1, 1495-1503 (Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, 1994), no. 852
[27] H.S. Sweetman (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 4 (1292-1301), p. 374
[28] H.S. Sweetman & G.F. Handcock (ed.), Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, Vol. 5 (1302-1307), p. 25
[29] Eric St. John Brooks, Knight’s fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th century (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1950), p. 223
[30] Eric St. John Brooks, Knight’s fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th century (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1950), p. 224; Forty-second report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Stationery Office, London, 1911), p. 23
[31] Eric St. John Brooks, Knight’s fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th century (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1950), p. 224; Forty-second report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Stationery Office, London, 1911), p. 68
[32] Forty-second report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Stationery Office, London, 1911), p. 39
[33] Forty-fourth report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Stationery Office, London, 1912), p. 25
[34] Forty-fourth report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland (Stationery Office, London, 1912), p. 24
[35] Eric St. John Brooks, Knight’s fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th century (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1950), p. 225
[36] Elizabeth Dowse & Margaret Murphy, ‘Rotulus Clausus de Anno 48 Edward III – a reconstruction’, in Analecta Hibernica, no. 35 (1992), pp. 126, 127
[37] Eric St. John Brooks, Knight’s fees in Counties Wexford, Carlow and Kilkenny, 13th-15th century (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1950), pp. 225, 226
[38] Goddard Henry Orpen, Ireland under the Normans, 1169-1333 (Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2005), Vol. III, p. 198
[39] Robert Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, Vol. VI with appendices (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1942), p. 47
[40] Gerald O’Carroll, The Earls of Desmond: The Rise and Fall of a Munster Lordship (author, 2013), p. 20
[41] Frank O’Brien, The O’Briens of Deise (Birchcorp, 2001), p. 68; Melanie O’Sullivan & Kevin McCarthy, Cappoquin: A Walk Through History (Cappoquin, 1999), p. 52
[42] Melanie O’Sullivan & Kevin McCarthy, Cappoquin: A Walk Through History (Cappoquin, 1999), p. 55
[43] Robert Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, Vol. VI with appendices (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1942), p. 47
[44] K.W. Nicholls, ‘Abstracts of Mandeville Deeds, NLI. MS.6136’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 32 (1985), pp. 9, 11, 19
[45] K.W. Nicholls, ‘Abstracts of Mandeville Deeds, NLI. MS.6136’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 32 (1985), pp. 8, 15
[46] K.W. Nicholls, ‘Abstracts of Mandeville Deeds, NLI. MS.6136’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 32 (1985), p. 15
[47] K.W. Nicholls, ‘Abstracts of Mandeville Deeds, NLI. MS.6136’, in Analecta Hibernica, No. 32 (1985), p. 7
[48] Rev. Alexander Grosart (ed.), The Lismore Papers, first series, vol. III, p. 101
[49] Robert Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, Vol. VI with appendices (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1942), p. 47
[50] Robert Simington (ed.), The Civil Survey A.D. 1654-1656 County of Waterford, Vol. VI with appendices (Stationery Office, Dublin, 1942), p. 55